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4.3. 在首次启动之后

If you activated the task “Debian desktop environment” without any explicit desktop choice (or with the “GNOME” choice), the computer will display the gdm3 login manager.

图 4.14. 首次启动


4.3.1. 安装附加软件

The installed packages correspond to the profiles selected during installation, but not necessarily to the use that will actually be made of the machine. As such, you might want to use a package management tool to refine the selection of installed packages. The two most frequently used tools (which are installed if the “Debian desktop environment” profile was chosen) are apt (accessible from the command line) and synaptic (“Synaptic Package Manager” in the menus).
为了所安装的程序的一致性, Debian 创造了专用于特定用途的 “任务” (邮件服务器,文件服务器,等等)。在安装过程中你已经有机会选择它们了,感谢包管理工具你能够以后再次访问它们,比如 aptitude (在不同的部分列出的任务) 和 synaptic (通过目录 编辑任务标记软件包…) 。
Aptitude 是 APT 全屏字符模式的接口。它允许用户以各种方式浏览可用软件包列表 (已安装或未安装的软件包,以各种标准划分,等等)。每个包能被标记为 “安装” (要安装是 + 键) 或者 “移除 (要移除是 - 键) 。 如果确认按 g(“g 就是 “go!”) 键所有这些操作会被同步执行如果你忘了这些程序,别担心;你可以在初始化安装完成后再次运行 aptitude
当然,也可以不选择任何要安装任务。这种情况下,你能用 apt-get 或者 aptitude 命令手动安装需要的软件包(这两个命令都可以从命令行执行)。

4.3.2. 升级系统

A first aptitude safe-upgrade (a command used to automatically update installed programs) is generally required, especially for possible security updates issued since the release of the latest Debian stable version. These updates may involve some additional questions through debconf, the standard Debian configuration tool. For further information on these updates conducted by aptitude, please refer to 第 6.2.3 节 “系统升级”.