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5.4. 通过dpkg来操作软件包

dpkg is the base command for handling Debian packages on the system. If you have .deb packages, it is dpkg that allows installation or analysis of their contents. But this program only has a partial view of the Debian universe: it knows what is installed on the system, and whatever it is given on the command line, but knows nothing of the other available packages. As such, it will fail if a dependency is not met. Tools such as apt, on the contrary, will create a list of dependencies to install everything as automatically as possible.

5.4.1. 安装软件包

dpkg is, above all, the tool for installing an already available Debian package (because it does not download anything). To do this, we use its -i or --install option.

例 5.2. 通过dpkg来安装一个软件包

# dpkg -i man-db_2.7.0.2-5_amd64.deb
(Reading database ... 86425 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack man-db_2.7.0.2-5_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking man-db (2.7.0.2-5) over (2.7.0.2-4) ...
Setting up man-db (2.7.0.2-5) ...
Updating database of manual pages ...
Processing triggers for mime-support (3.58) ...
通过dpkg我们可以看到安装时的不同步骤;因此我们会知道在什么时候可能会发生错误。安装也被分为两个阶段:首先解压包,然后配置它。apt-get会利用这一点,然后有限的调用dpkg(因为每次调用都要把数据加载到内存中,特别是那些在名单中已经被安装的文件)。

例 5.3. 分开解压和配置

# dpkg --unpack man-db_2.7.0.2-5_amd64.deb
(Reading database ... 86425 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack man-db_2.7.0.2-5_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking man-db (2.7.0.2-5) over (2.7.0.2-5) ...
Processing triggers for mime-support (3.58) ...
# dpkg --configure man-db
Setting up man-db (2.7.0.2-5) ...
Updating database of manual pages ...
有时dpkg在安装软件包的时候会失败并且返回一个错误;如果用户命令dpkg忽略掉这个错误,那么它仅仅会提示一个警告;这也就是我们有一个不同的--force--*选项。dpkg --force-help,或者是dpkg的帮助文档,有一个这些选项的详细清单。最常见的错误是,你迟到会遇到这样一个文件冲突,当一个软件包包含的文件中已经安装了另外一个软件包。
Unpacking libgdm (from .../libgdm_3.8.3-2_amd64.deb) ...
dpkg: error processing /var/cache/apt/archives/libgdm_3.8.3-2_amd64.deb (--unpack):
 trying to overwrite '/usr/bin/gdmflexiserver', which is also in package gdm3 3.4.1-9
在这种情况下,如果你认为文件替换该文件可能不会对系统的稳定性造成重大的风险(通常情况下),你可以使用--force-overwrite选项来告诉dpkg去忽略这个错误并且覆盖该文件。
当然这里有非常多的--force-*选项,只是--force-overwrite使用的非常频繁。这些选项仅存在特殊的情况下,所以最好是不去使用它们以便遵守软件包的管理机制。不要忘了,这些管理规则可以确保你的系统的稳定性和一致性。

5.4.2. 软件包移除

Invoking dpkg with the -r or --remove option, followed by the name of a package, removes that package. This removal is, however, not complete: all of the configuration files, maintainer scripts, log files (system logs) and other user data handled by the package remain. That way disabling the program is easily done by uninstalling it, and it's still possible to quickly reinstall it with the same configuration. To completely remove everything associated with a package, use the -P or --purge option, followed by the package name.

例 5.4. Removal and purge of the debian-cd package

# dpkg -r debian-cd
(Reading database ... 97747 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing debian-cd (3.1.17) ...
# dpkg -P debian-cd
(Reading database ... 97401 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing debian-cd (3.1.17) ...
Purging configuration files for debian-cd (3.1.17) ...

5.4.3. 查询 dpkg 的数据库,并检查 .deb 文件

Before concluding this section, we will study dpkg options that query the internal database in order to obtain information. Giving first the long options and then corresponding short options (that will evidently take the same possible arguments) we cite --listfiles package (or -L), which lists the files installed by this package; --search file (or -S), which finds the package(s) containing the file; --status package (or -s), which displays the headers of an installed package; --list (or -l), which displays the list of packages known to the system and their installation status; --contents file.deb (or -c), which lists the files in the Debian package specified; --info file.deb (or -I), which displays the headers of this Debian package.

例 5.5. dpkg的各种查询

$ dpkg -L base-passwd
/.
/usr
/usr/sbin
/usr/sbin/update-passwd
/usr/share
/usr/share/lintian
/usr/share/lintian/overrides
/usr/share/lintian/overrides/base-passwd
/usr/share/doc-base
/usr/share/doc-base/users-and-groups
/usr/share/base-passwd
/usr/share/base-passwd/group.master
/usr/share/base-passwd/passwd.master
/usr/share/man
/usr/share/man/pl
/usr/share/man/pl/man8
/usr/share/man/pl/man8/update-passwd.8.gz
/usr/share/man/ru
/usr/share/man/ru/man8
/usr/share/man/ru/man8/update-passwd.8.gz
/usr/share/man/ja
/usr/share/man/ja/man8
/usr/share/man/ja/man8/update-passwd.8.gz
/usr/share/man/fr
/usr/share/man/fr/man8
/usr/share/man/fr/man8/update-passwd.8.gz
/usr/share/man/es
/usr/share/man/es/man8
/usr/share/man/es/man8/update-passwd.8.gz
/usr/share/man/de
/usr/share/man/de/man8
/usr/share/man/de/man8/update-passwd.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8
/usr/share/man/man8/update-passwd.8.gz
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/base-passwd
/usr/share/doc/base-passwd/users-and-groups.txt.gz
/usr/share/doc/base-passwd/changelog.gz
/usr/share/doc/base-passwd/copyright
/usr/share/doc/base-passwd/README
/usr/share/doc/base-passwd/users-and-groups.html
$ dpkg -S /bin/date
coreutils: /bin/date
$ dpkg -s coreutils
Package: coreutils
Essential: yes
Status: install ok installed
Priority: required
Section: utils
Installed-Size: 13855
Maintainer: Michael Stone <mstone@debian.org>
Architecture: amd64
Multi-Arch: foreign
Version: 8.23-3
Replaces: mktemp, realpath, timeout
Pre-Depends: libacl1 (>= 2.2.51-8), libattr1 (>= 1:2.4.46-8), libc6 (>= 2.17), libselinux1 (>= 2.1.13)
Conflicts: timeout
Description: GNU core utilities
 This package contains the basic file, shell and text manipulation
 utilities which are expected to exist on every operating system.
 .
 Specifically, this package includes:
 arch base64 basename cat chcon chgrp chmod chown chroot cksum comm cp
 csplit cut date dd df dir dircolors dirname du echo env expand expr
 factor false flock fmt fold groups head hostid id install join link ln
 logname ls md5sum mkdir mkfifo mknod mktemp mv nice nl nohup nproc numfmt
 od paste pathchk pinky pr printenv printf ptx pwd readlink realpath rm
 rmdir runcon sha*sum seq shred sleep sort split stat stty sum sync tac
 tail tee test timeout touch tr true truncate tsort tty uname unexpand
 uniq unlink users vdir wc who whoami yes
Homepage: http://gnu.org/software/coreutils
$ dpkg -l 'b*'
Desired=Unknown/Install/Remove/Purge/Hold
| Status=Not/Inst/Conf-files/Unpacked/halF-conf/Half-inst/trig-aWait/Trig-pend
|/ Err?=(none)/Reinst-required (Status,Err: uppercase=bad)
||/ Name                    Version          Architecture     Description
+++-=======================-================-================-====================================================
un  backupninja             <none>           <none>           (no description available)
ii  backuppc                3.3.0-2          amd64            high-performance, enterprise-grade system for backin
un  base                    <none>           <none>           (no description available)
un  base-config             <none>           <none>           (no description available)
ii  base-files              8                amd64            Debian base system miscellaneous files
ii  base-passwd             3.5.37           amd64            Debian base system master password and group files
[...]
$ dpkg -c /var/cache/apt/archives/gnupg_1.4.18-6_amd64.deb
drwxr-xr-x root/root         0 2014-12-04 23:03 ./
drwxr-xr-x root/root         0 2014-12-04 23:03 ./lib/
drwxr-xr-x root/root         0 2014-12-04 23:03 ./lib/udev/
drwxr-xr-x root/root         0 2014-12-04 23:03 ./lib/udev/rules.d/
-rw-r--r-- root/root      2711 2014-12-04 23:03 ./lib/udev/rules.d/60-gnupg.rules
drwxr-xr-x root/root         0 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/
drwxr-xr-x root/root         0 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/lib/
drwxr-xr-x root/root         0 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/lib/gnupg/
-rwxr-xr-x root/root     39328 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/lib/gnupg/gpgkeys_ldap
-rwxr-xr-x root/root     92872 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/lib/gnupg/gpgkeys_hkp
-rwxr-xr-x root/root     47576 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/lib/gnupg/gpgkeys_finger
-rwxr-xr-x root/root     84648 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/lib/gnupg/gpgkeys_curl
-rwxr-xr-x root/root      3499 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/lib/gnupg/gpgkeys_mailto
drwxr-xr-x root/root         0 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/bin/
-rwxr-xr-x root/root     60128 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/bin/gpgsplit
-rwxr-xr-x root/root   1012688 2014-12-04 23:03 ./usr/bin/gpg
[...]
$ dpkg -I /var/cache/apt/archives/gnupg_1.4.18-6_amd64.deb
 new debian package, version 2.0.
 size 1148362 bytes: control archive=3422 bytes.
    1264 bytes,    26 lines      control              
    4521 bytes,    65 lines      md5sums              
     479 bytes,    13 lines   *  postinst             #!/bin/sh
     473 bytes,    13 lines   *  preinst              #!/bin/sh
 Package: gnupg
 Version: 1.4.18-6
 Architecture: amd64
 Maintainer: Debian GnuPG-Maintainers <pkg-gnupg-maint@lists.alioth.debian.org>
 Installed-Size: 4888
 Depends: gpgv, libbz2-1.0, libc6 (>= 2.15), libreadline6 (>= 6.0), libusb-0.1-4 (>= 2:0.1.12), zlib1g (>= 1:1.1.4)
 Recommends: gnupg-curl, libldap-2.4-2 (>= 2.4.7)
 Suggests: gnupg-doc, libpcsclite1, parcimonie, xloadimage | imagemagick | eog
 Section: utils
 Priority: important
 Multi-Arch: foreign
 Homepage: http://www.gnupg.org
 Description: GNU privacy guard - a free PGP replacement
  GnuPG is GNU's tool for secure communication and data storage.
  It can be used to encrypt data and to create digital signatures.
  It includes an advanced key management facility and is compliant
  with the proposed OpenPGP Internet standard as described in RFC 4880.
[...]

5.4.4. dpkg的日志文件

dpkg keeps a log of all of its actions in /var/log/dpkg.log. This log is extremely verbose, since it details every one of the stages through which packages handled by dpkg go. In addition to offering a way to track dpkg's behavior, it helps, above all, to keep a history of the development of the system: one can find the exact moment when each package has been installed or updated, and this information can be extremely useful in understanding a recent change in behavior. Additionally, all versions being recorded, it is easy to cross-check the information with the changelog.Debian.gz for packages in question, or even with online bug reports.

5.4.5. 多架构支持

所有的 Debian 包在它们的管控信息中都有一个架构 字段。该字段可包含:“全部“(对与架构无关的包),或者它的目标架构名称(如“amd64”, “armhf”,…)。对于后者,默认情况下,dpkg将只能接受安装与主机架构匹配的软件包,主机架构可通过dpkg --print-architecture来获得。
该限制确保用户不会因为错误架构编译的二进制文件而挂掉。一切都很完美,除了(某些)计算机可以运行多架构的二进制文件,或者以本地方式(“amd64“系统可运行”i386“二进制文件)运行,或者以模拟器运行。

5.4.5.1. 启用多架构

dpkg'的多架构支持允许用户定义可安装于当前系统的“异质架构” 。这可以方便的通过 dpkg --add-architecture完成,如下例。有一相应的 dpkg --remove-architecture 以放弃对异质架构的支持,但仅可用于未余留该架构软件包的情况。
# dpkg --print-architecture
amd64
# dpkg --print-foreign-architectures
# dpkg -i gcc-4.9-base_4.9.1-19_armhf.deb
dpkg: error processing archive gcc-4.9-base_4.9.1-19_armhf.deb (--install):
 package architecture (armhf) does not match system (amd64)
Errors were encountered while processing:
 gcc-4.9-base_4.9.1-19_armhf.deb
# dpkg --add-architecture armhf
# dpkg --add-architecture armel
# dpkg --print-foreign-architectures
armhf
armel
# dpkg -i gcc-4.9-base_4.9.1-19_armhf.deb
Selecting previously unselected package gcc-4.9-base:armhf.
(Reading database ... 86425 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack gcc-4.9-base_4.9.1-19_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking gcc-4.9-base:armhf (4.9.1-19) ...
Setting up gcc-4.9-base:armhf (4.9.1-19) ...
# dpkg --remove-architecture armhf
dpkg: error: cannot remove architecture 'armhf' currently in use by the database
# dpkg --remove-architecture armel
# dpkg --print-foreign-architectures
armhf

5.4.5.2. 多架构相关的变更

要让多架构真正实用和可用,库文件需要重新打包,并移动到一个用于特定架构的文件夹以便可以并存安装多重副本(针对不同架构)。这样的更新包中包含“Multi-Arch: same“头字段,以告诉打包系统此软件包的不同架构可以安全地并存安装(而且这些包仅能满足同架构软件包的依赖)。由于多架构在 Debian Wheezy 中为初次引入,因而尚未完成所有库文件的转换。
$ dpkg -s gcc-4.9-base
dpkg-query: error: --status needs a valid package name but 'gcc-4.9-base' is not: ambiguous package name 'gcc-4.9-base' with more than one installed instance

Use --help for help about querying packages.
$ dpkg -s gcc-4.9-base:amd64 gcc-4.9-base:armhf | grep ^Multi
Multi-Arch: same
Multi-Arch: same
$ dpkg -L libgcc1:amd64 |grep .so
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgcc_s.so.1
$ dpkg -S /usr/share/doc/gcc-4.9-base/copyright
gcc-4.9-base:amd64, gcc-4.9-base:armhf: /usr/share/doc/gcc-4.9-base/copyright
值得注意的是,Multi-Arch: same软件包需具备能够明晰识别架构的名称。它们也能够与相同包的其他实例共享文件;dpkg确保所有的包在共享时具有逐位对应识别的文件。最后但并非最不重要的,一个包的所有实例必须为相同版本。它们必须同时升级。
多架构支持也带来了在依赖处理方式上的一些有趣的挑战。要满足依赖,需要:或者有Multi-Arch: foreign标识的软件包,或者架构上能匹配已声明依赖的软件包(在该依赖方案处理中,架构无关包假定为同样架构,而非主机架构)。通过 软件包 :any语法,依赖可以被弱化,以便允许任意架构能够满足依赖,但异质软件包仅能满足如下依赖:有“ Multi-Arch: allowed ”标识的依赖。