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5.3. 原始套件的結構

5.3.1. 格式

A source package is usually comprised of three files, a .dsc, a .orig.tar.gz, and a .debian.tar.xz (or .diff.gz). They allow creation of binary packages (.deb files described above) from the source code files of the program, which are written in a programming language.
.dsc (Debian Source Control) 檔案是包括 RFC 2822 標頭 (如同 control 檔案於 節 5.2.1, “描述:control 檔案”) 的簡短文字檔,描述原始套件及包括的其他檔案。由維護者簽署,保證其真實性。詳情見 節 6.6, “檢查套件真偽”

範例 5.1. A .dsc 檔案

-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA512

Format: 3.0 (quilt)
Source: zim
Binary: zim
Architecture: all
Version: 0.68-1
Maintainer: Zim Package Maintainers <zim@packages.debian.org>
Uploaders: Raphaël Hertzog <hertzog@debian.org>
Homepage: http://zim-wiki.org
Standards-Version: 4.1.3
Vcs-Browser: https://salsa.debian.org/debian/zim
Vcs-Git: https://salsa.debian.org/debian/zim.git
Build-Depends: debhelper (>= 11), xdg-utils, python (>= 2.6.6-3~), libgtk2.0-0 (>= 2.6), python-gtk2, python-xdg, dh-python
Package-List:
 zim deb x11 optional arch=all
Checksums-Sha1:
 a3b50aa8e44126cc7edd2c1912adf9820f50ad58 2044224 zim_0.68.orig.tar.gz
 4e13b37625789334da2d95b93e51e41ffd3b6b01 9300 zim_0.68-1.debian.tar.xz
Checksums-Sha256:
 d91518e010f6a6e951a75314138b5545a4c51151fc99f513aa7768a18858df15 2044224 zim_0.68.orig.tar.gz
 23f4ddc69af74509932acc3b5f0d4cd2af943016e4fd5740b9d98ec4d49fd8c2 9300 zim_0.68-1.debian.tar.xz
Files:
 336041a16687abb66fd9f604b98407e8 2044224 zim_0.68.orig.tar.gz
 1714f67b35ab69e709849ad707206ca8 9300 zim_0.68-1.debian.tar.xz

-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
Comment: Signed by Raphael Hertzog

iQEzBAEBCgAdFiEE1823g1EQnhJ1LsbSA4gdq+vCmrkFAlqyOxkACgkQA4gdq+vC
mrnCqAf/Ww9wg97VragtVhSFvehoVoJ0ZhoqNaSuCP/W1Fuf+P0YklzL2BlkVRXW
X23c8Qs1v6VE2iRY3mEkdWwgBs1QwF0MX7H1jjQfPHCynGHKlH5dfo5fqLizgCeu
c9Pug3ZisjF90CgsseO7SVDqHVmO6QsfAaGWpHAw92HDz/xwjrS/4Ejntqjy0b+r
Gmw2AZuBdhp+7C6p7In/Gg6DHPBLQGMLCKypoZKQdl+L0fWjjeykOzMIbjry2sRH
H0J4FLVGAGumh3zIZlm/t3ehGfP9Dg8FvzMaCNsf8OtYCSAEutrQEDBaskcTSIpq
L0GQhKlViDuu8gzsqm7efPEhPcsF1A==
=6jGR
-----END PGP SIGNATURE-----
需注意原始套件和可執行套件一樣有相依性 (Build-Depends),指出編譯有問題軟體與建構其可執行套件的工具。
.orig.tar.gz 檔案包括原發展者提供的原始碼。要求 Debian 的套件維護者不要修改它,以便檢查原來的檔案與整合後的檔案 (比較校驗碼就知道) 並且尊重其他著者的意願。
The .debian.tar.xz contains all of the modifications made by the Debian maintainer, especially the addition of a debian directory containing the instructions to execute to construct a Debian package.

5.3.2. Debian 內的使用

Debian 的基礎是原始套件。Debian 所有的套件都從原始套件而來,對套件的修改也是針對原始套件。執行套件出了問題後,Debian 維護者修改原始套件後,再編譯為執行套件。維護者的工作成果都在 Debian 的原始套件內:您可輕易地回到原始套件找出源頭。
When a new version of a package (source package and one or more binary packages) arrives on the Debian server, the source package is the most important. Indeed, it will then be used by a network of machines of different architectures for compilation on the various architectures supported by Debian. The fact that the developer also sends one or more binary packages for a given architecture (usually i386 or amd64) is relatively unimportant, since these could just as well have been automatically generated.